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What are Cholesterol Particles?

Cholesterol. Just hearing the word likely conjures up negative thoughts. But, unfortunately, most of us know very little about cholesterol, except it’s bad. Synonymous with heart attacks and death, “You have high cholesterol” is a phrase you hope to avoid at your annual doctor’s visit. 

But what if we told you that total cholesterol levels are a poor predictor of heart disease? Would you be surprised to learn that cholesterol is not even the main culprit in the development and progression of heart disease? 

Likewise, you might be shocked to learn that cholesterol is your friend.

So, where did we get it all wrong? If the conventional markers of total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL do not help assess the risk for heart disease, what does? Inflammation is the real enemy. And to understand it, we must first examine cholesterol particle size.

What is cholesterol?

If someone were to ask you if you wanted to get rid of all the cholesterol in your body, you would probably say yes. After all, cholesterol is not viewed positively. 

Primarily produced by the liver, cholesterol is a fatty, wax-like substance found in every cell of the body. More specifically, cholesterol is a sterol – made of steroids and alcohol. 

Most people are surprised to learn that cholesterol is one of the most essential substances for health. Cholesterol is the main component of cell walls and is responsible for maintaining cellular health. 

Without cholesterol, our bodies would be unable to produce Vitamin D, bile, and sex hormones. Other essential functions of cholesterol include: 

  • Assists in the smooth functioning of the nervous system
  • Helps facilitate communication between cells
  • Acts as an anti-inflammatory, helping to repair damaged tissue

There is no “good” cholesterol or “bad” cholesterol. Cholesterol is simply cholesterol. 

What are cholesterol particles?

Cholesterol has a hydrocarbon tail and a central ring that are non-polar, meaning they do not mix with water. Since blood is primarily made of water, cholesterol can’t float through the bloodstream on its own. After all, oil and water don’t mix. 

As a result, cholesterol is packaged together with proteins to be carried through the body as a lipoprotein. Therefore, lipoproteins are fats combined with proteins. 

Much like vehicles, lipoproteins carry cholesterol through the body as cholesterol particles. So, when the doctor orders a cholesterol test, it actually measures your lipoproteins. 

There are many different types of lipoproteins, and they are classified by the types of protein they carry. The main types of cholesterol particles are: 

  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) 

LDL particles travel through blood vessels, carrying cholesterol and many other important nutrients from the liver to the cells and tissues. 

  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL)

HDL particles pick up extra LDL from the cells and tissues and carry them back to the liver.

Cholesterol particles: size matters

Not all LDL cholesterol is created equal. Lipoproteins vary in size from very small to very large. The smaller LDL particles present a problem because they are tiny enough to squeeze through the artery lining. 

Once lodged there, they have the potential to oxidize, causing inflammation and damage to the artery wall. Larger, fluffier LDL particles, on the other hand, rarely make it through the endothelium to the artery wall. 

LDL is best evaluated when it’s categorized by size and density, often referred to as a “pattern.” The two patterns, A and B, help determine the cardiovascular risk. 

  • LDL – Pattern A 
    LDL A particles are large and fluffy. They are generally considered harmless unless they become oxidized.
  • LDL – Pattern B 
    LDL B refers to smaller, denser molecules. These smaller particles are more likely to lodge into the arterial wall and become oxidized.

Not surprisingly, people with pattern B are more likely to experience heart complications than those with pattern A. Therefore, two individuals could have the same LDL-C levels, but if one individual leans more towards pattern B, they are at higher risk of heart attack and stroke. 

The problem with standard cholesterol testing

A heart attack is most often due to small, oxidized cholesterol found in plaques that breaks off and ruptures, causing a blood clot. The blood clot then obstructs the artery and impairs blood flow to the heart. Unfortunately, this type of “damaged” (oxidized) cholesterol is not tested in most conventional medical offices today.

Cholesterol circulating in the blood does not cause plaque formation unless it lodges itself into arterial walls. This is why traditional cholesterol testing metrics are inaccurate and misleading. Many individuals have died from CHD (coronary heart disease) whose pre-death cholesterol levels were considered “normal.”

Standard lipid panels tell us how much cholesterol is sitting inside a lipoprotein by weight. So when the doctor measures your LDL-C or calculates your LDL cholesterol level, it is a cholesterol mass measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Unfortunately, this calculation tells us nothing about heart disease risk. 

Consider the following analogy: Lipoproteins are vehicles that transport cholesterol through the body. The amount of passengers (cholesterol) in the car has less bearing on arriving safely, as does the number of vehicles (lipoproteins) on the road. 

Many LDL particles increase the risk of accidents that can cause damage to the endothelium. Moreover, passengers are safer in large vehicles (pattern A) than in smaller vehicles (pattern B).

Typical cholesterol tests don’t differentiate between large and small LDL particles. Most individuals lean in one direction or another, mainly having large LDL or mostly small LDL, depending on how they live, the environment, and to a lesser extent, genetics. 

LDL-C, the standard test for LDL, is an unreliable test. Simply because an individual may have a high LDL-C does not automatically put them at increased risk for heart disease. Conversely, individuals with lower LDL-C are not in the clear when it comes to risk. 

Evidence confirms that the risk for cardiovascular disease is more accurately predicted by the number of LDL particles, as opposed to the total amount of cholesterol within these particles. 

What tests do I need to measure my cholesterol particles?

To accurately assess heart disease risk, doctors should test for the number of LDL particles in the blood, or LDL-P. Science clearly shows that LDL-P drives heart attack and cardiovascular disease risk. 

LDL-P adds up the number of large LDL particles with the number of small LDL particles. Small LDL particles greatly influence total LDL-P. After all, the smaller the particles, the more particles you will have. Larger, fluffier LDL particles take up more room, resulting in fewer particles. 

Another important cardiovascular test related to cholesterol particles is apolipoprotein B or Apo B. An increasing body of scientific knowledge shows that Apo-B is one of the best measures of cardiovascular risk. 

Finally, it’s important to note that chronic inflammation is the trigger for cardiovascular disease. LDL, by itself, is not generally dangerous until oxidized. 

Therefore, testing for inflammation markers, such as C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and homocysteine, are important indicators of heart disease risk.

Statins and cholesterol particles 

Over 35 million Americans take statins to treat high cholesterol levels, and they do work at lowering cholesterol. However, studies show that a drop in cholesterol means nothing when it comes to reducing the risk of heart attack, strokes, and death. 

False Promise of Statin Report

Physicians currently test for a number that means significantly less than it’s portrayed to represent. Then, they write prescriptions for potentially dangerous medications to bring that number down. 

Studies show that statins don’t impact the LDL particle number. Therefore, many individuals who have their LDL-C levels lowered with statins likely still have high LDL-P and thus have a significant cardiac risk. Perhaps this is why cardiovascular disease continues to rise despite increased statin use. 

How do I decrease cholesterol particles? 

Since statins don’t work to lower the number or size of cholesterol particles, is there a better solution? Absolutely! 

Individuals with high cholesterol should consider natural supplementation as an effective alternative to statins. OptiLipid contains six proven remedies to improve cholesterol levels naturally. 

Other ways to reduce cardiovascular risk markers include: 

Next Steps 

Hearing that conventional lipid markers are not accurate predictors of heart disease risk may blow your mind. Unfortunately, despite plenty of scientific evidence supporting this assertion, many doctors still don’t understand this concept.

The team at Natural Heart Doctor uses the most accurate, evidence-based lipid testing available. Working with our team will ensure that the correct tests are conducted. 

Additionally, all test results come with a free 20-minute consultation call with one of our experienced health coaches so that you may fully understand your results and the next best steps. 


Medically Reviewed: Dr. Jack Wolfson, 2023

False Promise of Statin Report

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About Dr. Keith Smigiel NP, DC

Dr. Keith Smigiel

Dr. Keith Smigiel is a regenerative medicine physician and pain management specialist. He takes an integrative approach to medicine, focusing on customized solutions tailored to individual needs. Using advanced, non-surgical treatments, Dr. Smigiel stimulates your body’s ability to naturally heal itself.

Dr. Smigiel helps people suffering from conditions such as chronic pain and erectile dysfunction, to hair loss and weight gain. Combining treatments such as PRP Therapy, Ozone, Neural Prolotherapy, and IV Infusions with functional rehabilitation, he helps you look and feel better.

He heals the body, instead of just treating the symptoms!

With his professional qualifications as a certified family nurse practitioner, a doctor of chiropractic, and a fellow of the International Academy of Medical Acupuncture, Dr. Smigiel offers patients comprehensive care from a broad perspective of conventional and alternative medicine. He also has extensive experience in functional rehabilitation and chronic pain management.

Dr. Smigiel is married to Angela and has two children, Sophia and Larz. When he’s not busy helping patients, he enjoys hiking, mountain biking, motocross, and boating.

About Dr. James Kneller, M.D., Ph.D., FHRS

Dr. James Kneller, M.D., Ph.D., FHRS

Dr. James Kneller is one of the nation’s leading heart rhythm specialists. Dr. Kneller is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) in Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiovascular Disease, and Internal Medicine.

As a Fellow of the Heart Rhythm Society (FHRS) and Certified Cardiac Device Specialist (CCDS), Kneller provides comprehensive patient care, combining best medical practice with invasive procedures using state-of-the-art technologies to treat heart rhythm disorders.

Beyond guideline-directed therapies, Kneller is passionate about optimized personal health. With a deep interest in complimentary alternative medicine (CAM), he strives to reduce the need for pharmaceuticals, invasive procedures, and exposure to harmful radiation. With Natural Heart Doctor, he strives to help each and every client to Live Well, Eat Well, and Think Well to attain their 100-year heart!

About Dr. Lauren Lattanza NMD, FACC

Dr. Lattanza Office Visit with Patient

As a Naturopathic Physician, I am trained to treat the whole person and get to the root cause of disease.

I went to Arizona State University where I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in psychology with a depth in physiology and minor in Spanish. After my undergraduate degree I was working on prerequisite classes towards medical school, which is when I came to learn that my values identified best with the principles of naturopathic medicine. I knew that I wanted to help patients identify the causes of disease and be able to offer treatments which would improve their health rather than simply treating symptoms.

I dedicated the next 4 years to the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine in Tempe, Arizona where I attained my Doctorate of Naturopathic Medicine. I served as Class President all 4 years, Board of Trustees – Student Trustee, spoke as the Club President for our branch of Toastmasters, and was voted by my peers and attending physicians to earn the Outstanding Leadership Award for the Class of 2020. Throughout medical school I took it upon myself to work alongside MDs, DOs, chiropractors, and functional medicine practitioners in addition to naturopathic physicians.

As a Spanish speaking student, I was able to volunteer with community clinics around Phoenix and provide free healthcare to low-income families. Due to this combined exposure, I came to find my passion in treating cardiometabolic and digestive disorders that are all too common, yet largely preventable. I took the opportunity to learn the broad spectrum of healthcare so I can ensure that I am able to provide my patients with the best options.

About Dr. Jack Wolfson DO, FACC

Dr. Wolfson Office Visit with Patient

Dr. Jack Wolfson is a board-certified cardiologist, Amazon best-selling author, husband, father, and the nation’s #1 Natural Heart Doctor.

For more than two decades, more than one million people have enjoyed the warmth, compassion, and transformational power of his natural heart health courses and events.

Dr. Wolfson is the founder of Natural Heart Doctor Scottsdale, his heart health practice in Arizona, and Natural Heart Doctor, an online resource center with natural health information. Doctors from across the globe reach out to Dr. Wolfson for training and education in holistic health practices.

He has been named one of America’s Top Functional Medicine Doctors and is a five-time winner of the Natural Choice Awards as a holistic M.D. Dr. Wolfson’s work has been covered by more than 100 media outlets, including NBC, CNN, and the Washington Post. His book “The Paleo Cardiologist: The Natural Way to Heart Health” was an Amazon #1 best-seller.

Dr. Wolfson and his wife Heather have four children and are committed to making the world a better place to live. They provide for those in need (including animals) and support natural health causes through their philanthropic efforts.

Chiropractic

Our chiropractor is an expert at adjustments and holistic chiropractic care and works closely in conjunction with the other health care experts at Natural Heart Doctor.

Call (480) 535-6844 for details and scheduling.

IV Therapy

We use specially formulated natural vitamins and minerals that are injected into a vein to prevent or treat dehydration. Ideal for people in Arizona.

Call (480) 535-6844 for details and scheduling.

Acupuncture

Stimulate your body’s natural healing abilities and promote physical and emotional well-being with acupuncture at Natural Heart Doctor.

Call (480) 535-6844 for details and scheduling.

Health Coaching

Our health coaches use evidence based skillful conversation, clinical interventions, and strategies to engage you actively and safely in health behavior changes.

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Cardio Tests

We use the most advanced testing in the world to assess heart health and to identify the root cause of your health issues.

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Office Visits

Schedule an office visit with one of our cardiologists, holistic physicians, chiropractor, or health coaches.

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Frequently Asked Questions

I’d like to receive an online second opinion from Natural Heart Doctor. What do I do next?

You can initiate a second opinion online through our website at any time. To begin, select the team member you’d like to speak with and open an account.

Click here for cardiologist Dr. Jack Wolfson.

Naturopathic Medical Doctor Dr. Lauren Lattanza. Get details.

Naturopathic Medical Doctor Dr. Tonia Rainier. Get details.

Click here for  Natural Heart Doctor Health Coach.

Alternatively, you can email health@naturalheartdoctor.com. A member of our care team will help guide you through the process of starting a second opinion.

What is the cost of a Natural Heart Doctor Online Second Opinion?

The cost for most second opinions varies by team member. This fee includes information collection, a phone or video consultation, a second opinion from a Natural Heart Doctor specialist and guidance throughout the process from your personal Care Team at Natural Heart Doctor.

Cardiologist Dr. Jack Wolfson’s Second Opinion Fee is $1500.

Holistic Physician’s Dr. Lauren Lattanza’s Second Opinion Fee is $250.

Naturopathic Physician Dr. Tonia Rainier’s Second Opinion Fee is $250.

Note: We apply the Online Second Opinion Call fee as a credit to any future consultations with Natural Heart Doctor, should you choose them.

Will my insurance cover the cost of a Natural Heart Doctor Online Second Opinion?

Most likely, no. Most health plans do not cover online second opinions or consultations. You are responsible for the cost of our second opinion. Natural Heart Doctor cannot file a claim with your insurance carrier, nor can we provide a procedure (CPT) code for this service.

What is the timeline to receive an online second opinion?

We do our best to schedule your second opinion as quickly as possible. Typically, it takes 5 to 7 business days after your information has been collected to receive your phone or video online second opinion.

What information do you need in advance of our call?

Our office will send you a short questionnaire to complete and return. We DO NOT need your complete medical records.

How many questions can I ask the expert during our call?

You may ask a maximum of five questions. This is to ensure that the expert has sufficient time to devote to each question. All questions must be finalized before your online meeting.

What should I expect to receive once my second opinion is complete?

You will receive a summary of our discussion along with our second opinion. The second opinion will be in written form. After you have reviewed the second opinion, a Natural Heart Doctor clinician will follow up with you by phone to address general medical questions about the information provided in the second opinion.

What if I have follow-up questions for the expert after I have reviewed my second opinion?

If you have a clarifying question about an expert’s response to one of the questions in your second opinion, and the Natural Heart Doctor clinician is unable to address it, then you may request a follow up session for an additional fee. 

Is my medical and payment information secure?

Natural Heart Doctor is strongly committed to protecting the privacy and security of all our patients. Our website meets all federal requirements for protecting personal health information under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). All financial transactions are processed by Natural Heart Doctor securely using industry standard payment processing tools.

I would rather visit Natural Heart Doctor for an in-person appointment. What should I do next?

If you would prefer an in-person appointment at Natural Heart Doctor instead of an online second opinion, please call (480) 535-6844 for details and scheduling.

Can I schedule a follow up appointment with the specialist who provided my online second opinion?

Yes, we’re happy to help you on an extended basis. Our clinician can discuss options with you when presenting our second opinion summary.